剣道 - kendō - This is what could best be described at "Japanese Fencing." It uses thick and heavy armor, and the attackers wield bamboo swords (竹刀 shinai).
柔道 - jūdō - Japanese wrestling. The name means, "way of softness." I was told it was used to disarm an opponent, not to attack them.
弓道 - kyūdō - Japanese archery. It uses an enormous bow. One of the more spectacular applications of it is horse-mounted archery (流鏑馬 yabusame).
馬道 - badō - The art of riding a horse.
杖道 - jōdō - This fighting style was for the poor public who could not carry swords. They used long poles.
居合道 - iaidō - This is a relatively new sport, coming to life in the Meiji Era. Put simply, it is about learning how to draw a sword and attack imaginary opponents. There is another art, called 抜刀 (batō), which uses a real sword to slice wet tatami mats. In that sport, one must focus on their cutting style.
空手道 - karatedō - This is not originally from Japan, but from Okinawa. So, I guess the dō suffix is something recent.
茶道 - sadō - Otherwise known as 茶の湯 (cha-no-yu). It is the famous Japanese tea ceremony. A guy named 千利休 (Sen-no-Rikyū) started this ceremony, and it has branched off into three main schools, and many subschools.
書道 - shodō - AKA 習字 (shūji). This is calligraphy. One studies a lot: Japanese characters, both sets, and Chinese characters in all their different writing styles.
華道 - kadō - AKA 生け花 (ikebana). There are many traditions.
香道 - kōdō - The art of incense. If you don't know about Japanese incense, go to a temple on a allergy free day.
仏道 - butsudō - The study of Buddhism.
I am sure there is more, and I know I am lacking in explanations... but I figure I would open the subject for discussion.